a January 14:
2002 The price of shares of Kmart Corporation (KM) falls over 22% intraday (to $2.55 from the 13 Jan 2002 close of $3.30) as concern mounts about the fate of the discount chain which has seen sales and profits fall in the face of stiff competition from Wal-Mart Stores Inc.
2002 On the NASDAQ the price of shares of Miravant Medical Technologies (MRVT) plummets to a close of $2.44 (intraday low $2.05), down 75% from the 13 January close of $9.75, ot news of disappointing results of the trial of a macular degenaration drug. [5-year price chart >]
2002 Jordanian Prime Minister Ali Abu al-Ragheb, 55, reshuffles his 29-member cabinet at King Abdullah's request to prepare for a parliamentary election (delayed from November 2001 to avoid Islamist gains) expected to be held in September 2002. Jordan's ambassador to the US since 1997, Marwan al-Muasher, is named foreign minister, replacing Abdulilah al-Khatib who had held the post for three years. Qaftan al-Majali, interior ministry under-secretary, becomes minister of the interior replacing controversial Awad Khuleifat, who has been at odds with Abu Ragheb. Finance Minister Michel Marto keeps his job.
2000 Denis Chatelier, 33, receives a transplant of both hands at l'hôpital Edouard-Herriot de Lyon. He will have to receive immunosuppressants for the rest of his life, increasing his risk of contracting life-threatening diseases. This, and the uncertainty of his gaining control of his new hands, generates a controversy. However, one year later, Chatelier would have gained sensitivity and much use of the hands. Chatelier had lost his forearms and hands in 1996 when an amateur rocket he made with his nephews exploded as he was preparing it for launch.
2000 A U.N. tribunal sentenced five Bosnian Croats to up to 25 years in prison for the 1993 massacre of at least 103 Muslims in a Bosnian village.
|1999 Clinton impeachment trial starts in US Senate.
(1) The House prosecution team begins its three-day case for removing President Bill Clinton from office, presenting the Senate with its road map for the "impeachable offenses" of perjury and obstruction of justice they claim Clinton committed. The managers are fighting an uphill battle to convince two-thirds of the Senate that Clinton should be convicted of the two articles of impeachment, and consequently be removed from office. In his introductory remarks, Judiciary Committee Chairman Henry Hyde reminds the senators of their duties as impartial jurors. "You are seated in this historic chamber ... to listen to the evidence as those who must sit in judgment. To guide you in this grave duty, you've taken an oath of impartiality." (TRANSCRIPT)
Hyde gives the introduction "The president engaged in a conspiracy of crimes to prevent justice from being served. These are impeachable offenses for which the president should be convicted," Rep. James Sensenbrenner (R-Wisconsin) says in his overview of the managers' case.
Sensenbrenner stresses that the trial is taking place because Clinton had multiple occasions to tell the truth about his affair with former White House intern Monica Lewinsky but didn't. "We are here today because President William Jefferson Clinton decided to put himself above the law, not once, not twice, but repeatedly," Sensenbrenner says. He adds that the president "could have told the truth to the American people. Instead, he shook his finger at each and every American and said, 'I want you to listen to me' and proceeded to tell a straight-faced lie to the American people." The failure to convict Clinton on the impeachment charges, says Sensenbrenner, "will cause a cancer to be present in our society for generations." Offering some of the toughest rhetoric of the day, Sensenbrenner concludes: "When a cancer exists in the body politic, our job, our duty, is to excise it." (TRANSCRIPT)
The "fact" team then takes over the House's presentation. Reps. Ed Bryant (Tennessee), Hutchinson and Rogan closely follow the 105-page legal brief the managers filed with the Senate on 11 January to outline their case. Sensenbrenner savages the Clinton White House Before his colleagues launch into their recitation of the For the case, Bryant stresses to the senators that the events in question can not be viewed as isolated incidents but instead as a pattern of corruption. "Remember, events and words that may seem innocent or even exculpatory in a vacuum may well take on sinister, or even criminal connotation when observed in the context of the whole plot," Bryant says. He provides a loosely chronological history of events that led to Starr's investigation of the president. "Every trial must have a beginning and this trial begins on a cold day in January 1993," Bryant says, showing video of Clinton taking his first oath of office on the steps of the Capitol. The Tennessee Republican went on to trace the events surrounding Jones' civil lawsuit, as well as the progression of the president's sexual relationship with Lewinsky through December 1997. (TRANSCRIPT)
Rogan replays parts of the president's testimony before Independent Counsel
Ken Starr's grand jury on 17 August to lay out his case for impeachment
Article I, which accuses Clinton of perjury. The California representative
focuses much of his remarks on the prepared statement Clinton read 19
times during his grand jury testimony. In that statement, Rogan says,
Clinton gave a "false account of the nature and details of his relationship
with Lewinsky." Specifically, Rogan says Clinton lied about the starting
date of the affair and the type of sexual activity that took place. "Ironically,
this prepared statement was supposed to inoculate him from perjury. Instead,
it opened him up to 19 more examples of giving perjurious, false, and
misleading answers under oath," he adds. Though the House voted down an
article of impeachment charging Clinton with perjury in his Paula Jones
civil deposition, Rogan addresses the charge in his statement, arguing
that Clinton perjured himself by repeating "previous perjured answers
he gave under oath in a sexual harassment lawsuit." Bryant highlights
Clinton's original oath.
| Speaking to Article II — the obstruction of justice charge — Hutchinson
tells the Senate that Clinton encouraged Lewinsky to submit a false affidavit,
tampered with witnesses and conspired to conceal the gifts exchanged between
the president and the ex-intern. Hutchinson also categorizes the job search
for Lewinsky as obstruction. Using charts to display the timelines, Hutchinson
runs through a tic-toc of events from December 1997 when Lewinsky was subpoenaed
in the Jones case to January 1998 when the scandal was threatening to break
in the press. Hutchinson presents what he dubbed Clinton's "seven pillars
of obstruction" that include encouraging the filing of a false affidavit,
witness tampering and the concealment of evidence. He calls the president's
actions part of a scheme to hide the relationship with Lewinsky from Jones'
lawyers. Hutchinson refutes White House claims that this case is just about
sex and personal behavior by the president. "It is not a crime nor an impeachable
offense to engage in inappropriate personal conduct; nor is it a crime to
obstruct or conceal an embarrassing relationship." "But as we go through
the facts of this case, the evidence will show that a scheme was developed
to obstruct the administration of justice, and that is illegal," he says.
Hutchinson is from Clinton's home state, and his brother, Sen. Tim Hutchinson
(R-Arkansas), is sitting as a juror in this trial.
Chief Justice William Rehnquist, who is presiding over the trial, periodically stands up to stretch his ailing back. As the afternoon drifts into evening, senators sit quietly at their desks, some taking notes, some fidgeting and others perfectly still. Several lawmakers quietly make requests for paper or water, but per the rules, no senator so much as whispered during the first hour or so of proceedings. The trial adjourns Thursday night after House managers complete a six-hour presentation of evidence. The summation of the factual case will be presented by Rep. Bill McCollum (R-Florida) when the trial resumes at 13:00 ET on 15 January. (2) The House Managers, by David Schippers, submit a rebuttal memorandum to Clinton's Trial Memorandum
(3) A senior White House source later accuses House prosecutors of opening their impeachment case against Clinton with an "outrageous and blatant misrepresentation." At issue: Sensenbrenner's remarks, when he suggested that those looking for evidence the president committed perjury should look at the House Judiciary Committee testimony of White House counsel Charles Ruff. Sensenbrenner said Ruff declined to answer the question when asked if the president had told the truth in his grand jury testimony. But the White House official says Ruff's answer was, "He surely did." The official says: "Congressman Sensenbrenner blatantly misrepresented the facts and the record, consistent with the outrageous and blatant misrepresentation of the record throughout their entire case. ... They say nothing is more central to the rule of law than the truth and they can't tell the truth." Hutchinson presents a devastating timeline
(4) Independent Counsel Ken Starr says his staff is in touch with House prosecutors to provide them assistance with the impeachment trial of President Bill Clinton. "There's a process that is underway that's called for by the Constitution, and our office had a statutory obligation to refer materials to Congress once, in our evaluation, the predicate was there for Congress to consider it," Starr says. "I don't think I should be commenting at all. It's the process that Congress has ordained, and now the Constitution has provided for." Starr says he had not been in touch with the prosecutors today, but he did plan on watching the proceedings. When asked if the case could be appropriately considered without witnesses, Starr says he did not want to comment on a process that was at the discretion of and the "rightful prerogative" of the Senate. "I think I should allow those judgments to be made without the burden of any comment I may have," Starr says. Meanwhile, Starr finally receives a confidential response to his 02 December 1998 complaints that Reno's Justice Department is politically biased in favor of protecting Clinton. The response comes from from Deputy Attorney General Eric Holder. "I reject in the strongest terms'' the "charge that the department has engaged in 'politically motivated interference,''' Holder's office writes. Holder's office says the 02 December 1998 letter from Starr's office is "wholly unjustified;'' that Holder is "very disappointed" by the letter's tone; and that the DOJ would list the allegations it intended to review. Eventually, discussions will resume between Justice and Starr. Starr will later supply the DOJ's Office of Professional Responsibility a point-by-point rebuttal (totaling several hundred pages) to allegations of impropriety in his investigation of Clinton.
| 1998 In Dallas, researchers report an enzyme that slows
the aging process and cell death.
1995 Tens of thousands of South Africans attend state funeral of Yossel Mashel "Joe" Slovo, the chief White leader in the struggle against apartheid for more than 40 years. He had died on 06 January, at age 68.
1994 US President Clinton and Russian President Boris Yeltsin signed Kremlin accords to stop aiming missiles at any nation and to dismantle the nuclear arsenal of Ukraine.
1991 Jorge Serrano Elías sworn in as President of Guatemala
1991 Valentin Pavlov becomes premier of USSR
1990 Pérez de Cuellar says he has lost all hope for peace in the Persian Gulf.
1989 Former Belgian premier Paul Van den Boeynants kidnapped
1989 1000 Muslims burn Salman Rushdie's Satanic Verses in Bradford England
1986 Constitution of Guatemala takes effect and Vinicio Cerezo becomes only the 2nd freely elected President of Guatemala since the CIA-sponsored coup in 1954
1985 British pound (£) sinks to record low$1.11
1981 FCC frees stations to air as many commercials an hour as they wish
1975 USSR breaks trade agreement with US
1963 George C Wallace sworn in as Governor of Alabama, his address states "segregation now; segregation tomorrow; segregation forever!"
1956 Jordan government refuses to join Pact of Baghdad.
1953 Marshal Josip Broz Tito is elected the first president of Yugoslavia by the country's Parliament.
1950 US recalls all consular officials from China.
| 1944 Soviet army begins offensive at Oranienbaum/Wolchow.
1943 Heinrich Himmler, Reichsführer of the SS, views Warsaw
1939 Norway claims Queen Maud Land in Antarctica
1938 National Society for the Legalization of Euthanasia formed (NY)
1936 Lawrence Mario Giannini, son of founder Amadeo Peter Giannini, elected president of Bank of America
1935 Oil pipeline Iraq-Mediterranean goes into use
1929 Afghan King Amanullah forced to resign
1918 Finland and USSR adopts New Style (Gregorian) calendar
1916 Dutch South Sea dike cracks
1914 Henry Ford introduces assembly line, for the Model-T. In Ford's early lines, parts and product were precisely standardized. Only one car model was manufactured, and each unit was identical to every other unit in all aspects, including color — black. The new method reduces assembly time of a car from 12½ hours to 93 minutes.
1912 Raymond Poincaré becomes premier of France.
|1896 Ponzi immigrates to US, where
he would invent his notorious Scheme.
CarloPonzi immigrates to the US from Italy. The small-time con man would later stumble into one of the largest scams of all time and have an entire type of crime named after him: the "Ponzi scheme." For 20 years, Ponzi bounced from job to job, always dreaming up a way to make millions but never coming close. But in 1919, he came up with a new plan. Ponzi told friends and potential investors that they would get a 50 percent return on their money within three months if they invested with him. The hapless investors were never told much about what Ponzi planned on doing with their money, but, when pressed, he told them that it had to do with international postal exchange coupons, an obscure field that virtually no one knew much about. Ponzi told his marks that they could cash out at the end of three months or roll over their investments.
Ponzi promptly paid off his initial investors and soon the investment dollars were pouring in. Thousands of people came to his offices, where money was stuffed in every desk drawer and filing cabinet. Ponzi was taking in an estimated $200'000 a day at the frenzy's peak. When a local writer questioned Ponzi's financial record, he threatened to sue and scared off further inquiry. Ponzi went on a personal spending spree in 1920, buying 100 suits and 100 pairs of shoes. He also took $3 million in cash to the Hanover Trust Company and bought a controlling interest in the reputable firm.
However, when state investigators finally began examining his books and interviewing his workers they found that there was no real investment going on. Of course, only the very early investors actually got any money back, and these funds came from later investors. Such a scam, known as a pyramid scheme, inevitably explodes, as it did on August 13, 1920, when thousands of investors demanded their money back. Ponzi, anticipating the collapse, had already taken $2 million to the Saratoga casinos in a vain attempt to make up the lost money. Ponzi went to jail and was deported to Italy in 1934. He told reporters, "I hope the world forgives me." Perhaps taken in by his apparent contrition, Italian dictator Benito Mussolini gave Ponzi a high position in the government's financial sector. However, human nature is very difficult to change, and Ponzi eventually embezzled funds from the country's treasury and escaped to Brazil, where he died in 1949.
He also inspired the amusing web page http://www.bandersnatch.com/ponzi.htm quoted below:
THE PONZI SCHOOL OF BUSINESS Our faculty is sought after by authorities in 37 foreign countriesGDU offers a wide variety of independent study programs ranging from obtaining SBA Loans to international securities fraud. Our Course Materials have been prepared by experts in their respective fields located in the finest correctional institutions on three continents.
The Ponzi School of Business was named after Mr.Carlo Ponzi, who obtained money from investors, using some of the investor money to pay "dividends" to other investors, creating the illusion of a successful investment, while he was pocketing the balance of the invested funds. The practice is commonly referred to as a "Ponzi Scheme" and a Ponzi-type operation is also known as a "bucket shop" or the Social Security System.
BUSINESS 101: ETHICS (No Credit) Case histories of famous robber barons, con artists, swindlers, grifters and politicians are reviewed.
BUSINESS 1O2: THE SWISS BANKING SYSTEM How to open up your numbered account in Zurich. [Trip to Switzerland not included in Course Materials.]
BUSINESS 103: TAX HAVENS Numerous small countries (mostly in the Caribbean) offer opportunities to locate businesses and open up bank accounts that are not subject to US taxation. [Field trips to the Netherlands Antilles and the Grand Cayman Islands can be arranged for a substantial price.]
BUSINESS 1O4: EXTRADITION TREATIES The laws of Brazil, Costa Rica, and other countries lacking effective extradition treaties with the United States are carefully explained. Itinerary of Robert Vesco included. [Note: if you are a former governmental official of Mexico, a special section is offered on exile in Cuba.]
BUSINESS 105: TIME SHARE CEMETERIES The newest wrinkle on real estate opportunities is explained. Double occupancy rates are covered.
BUSINESS 106: YARD SALES How to get rich buying junk at other people's yard sales and selling this dreck at your own yard sale for a profit.
BUSINESS 109: MONEY CAN MAKE YOU RICH Learn how to borrow money from friends without having to pay it back.
BUSINESS 201: INDIGENT ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT Selling "will work for food signs" and reserving street corners is covered. Samples of effective signs such as "To Be Honest I Just Want To Buy Some Beer" are included.
Fish and ships.
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at GDU (General Delivery University)
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The General Delivery University is affiliated with the Frumious Bandersnatch Visit the Frumious Bandersnatch
| 1894 Joseph Conrad returns to London
Joseph Conrad returns to London to settle down after a long career at sea. There, he begins rewriting a story he had been working on during his travels, which becomes his first novel, Almayer's Folly. Conrad was born in Poland, as Jozef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski, on 03 December 1857, the son of a Polish poet and patriot. Conrad's father was arrested in 1861 for political activism and exiled to northern Russia. His wife and toddler son joined him. Both parents died of tuberculosis when Joseph was about 12. An uncle raised Joseph, until the boy set out at age 17 for Marseilles, France, where he joined the merchant marine and sailed to the West Indies. Conrad's many harrowing adventures at sea inspired much of his work, which would make him one of the greatest English novelist and short-story writer, whose works include the novels Lord Jim (1900), Nostromo (1904), and The Secret Agent (1907) and the short story Heart of Darkness (1902).
In 1878, when Korzeniowskij was 21, he traveled to England as a deck hand on a British freighter. He perfected his English during six voyages on a small British trade boat and spent 16 years with the British merchant navy. He had numerous adventures around the world, became a British subject in 1886, and got his first command in 1888. In 1889 he commanded a Congo River steamboat for four months, which set the stage for his well-known story Heart of Darkness (1902).
Korzeniowskij began writing in the late 1890s and used the name Conrad. Almayer's Folly, was published in 1895. In 1896 he married an English woman and gave up the sea to write full time. His work evolved from hearty sea-adventure tales to sophisticated and pessimistic explorations of morals, personal choices, and character. His best-known works, including Lord Jim, Nostromo and The Secret Agent, were published between 1900 and 1911, and brought him financial security.
In A Personal Record (also titled Some Reminiscences) Conrad relates that his first introduction to the English language was at the age of eight, when his father was translating the works of Shakespeare.
In July 1876 he sailed to the West Indies, as a steward on the Saint-Antoine. On this gunrunning voyage, Conrad sailed along the coast of Venezuela, memories of which were to find a place in Nostromo. The first mate of the vessel, a Corsican named Dominic Cervoni, was the model for the hero of that novel and was to play a picturesque role in Conrad's life and work.
In April 1881 Conrad joined the Palestine, a bark of 425 tons. This move proved to be an important event in his life; it took him to the Far East for the first time, and it was also a continuously troubled voyage, which provided him with literary material that he would use later. Beset by gales, accidentally rammed by a steamer, and deserted by a sizable portion of her crew, the Palestine nevertheless had made it as far as the East Indies when her cargo of coal caught fire and the crew had to take to the lifeboats; Conrad's initial landing in the East, on an island off Sumatra, took place only after a 13-1/2-hour voyage in an open boat. In 1898 Conrad published his account of his experiences on the Palestine, with only slight alterations, as the short story Youth, a remarkable tale of a young officer's first command.
In 1883 Conrad joined the Narcissus at Bombay. This voyage gave him material for his novel The Nigger of the "Narcissus,", the story of an egocentric black sailor's deterioration and death aboard ship.
In February 1887 Conrad sailed as first mate on the Highland Forest, bound for Semarang, Java. Her captain was John McWhirr, whom he later immortalized under the same name as the heroic, unimaginative captain of the steamer Nan Shan in Typhoon. He then joined the Vidar, a locally owned steamship trading among the islands of the southeast Asian archipelago. During the five or six voyages he made in four and a half months, Conrad was discovering and exploring the world he was to re-create in his first novels, Almayer's Folly, An Outcast of the Islands, and Lord Jim, as well as several short stories.
After leaving the Vidar Conrad unexpectedly obtained his first command, on the Otago, sailing from Bangkok, an experience out of which he was to make his stories The Shadow Line and Falk.
In London in the summer of 1889, Conrad began to write Almayer's Folly. He interrupted that to go to the Congo Free State, which was four years old as a political entity and already notorious as a sphere of imperialistic exploitation. Conrad obtained the command of a Congo River steamboat. What he saw, did, and felt in his 4 months in the Congo are largely recorded in Heart of Darkness, his most famous, finest, and most enigmatic story, the title of which signifies not only the heart of Africa, the dark continent, but also the heart of evil — everything that is corrupt, nihilistic, malign — and perhaps the heart of man. The story is central to Conrad's work and vision, and it is difficult not to think of his Congo experiences as traumatic. He may have exaggerated when he said, "Before the Congo I was a mere animal," but in a real sense the dying Kurtz's cry, "The horror! The horror!" was Conrad's. He suffered psychological, spiritual, even metaphysical shock in the Congo, and his physical health was also damaged; for the rest of his life, he was racked by recurrent fever and gout.
Folly was published in April 1895. It was as the author of this
novel that he adopted the name Conrad. Almayer's Folly was followed
in 1896 by An
Outcast of the Islands, which repeats the theme of a foolish and
blindly superficial character meeting the tragic consequences of his own
failings in a tropical region far from the company of his fellow Europeans.
These two novels provoked a misunderstanding of Conrad's talents and purpose
which dogged him the rest of his life. Set in the Malayan archipelago, they
caused him to be labeled a writer of exotic tales, a reputation which a
series of novels and short stories about the sea — The
Nigger of the Narcissus (1897), Lord
Jim (1900), Youth
Typhoon (1902), and others — seemed only to confirm. But, as
he wrote about the Narcissus, in his view "the problem . . . is
not a problem of the sea, it is merely a problem that has risen on board
a ship where the conditions of complete isolation from all land entanglements
make it stand out with a particular force and colouring." This is equally
true of his other works; the latter part of Lord
Jim takes place in a jungle village not because the emotional and
moral problems that interest Conrad are those peculiar to jungle villages,
but because there Jim's feelings of guilt, responsibility, and insecurity — feelings
common to mankind — work themselves out with a logic and inevitability that
are enforced by his isolation.
Conrad's finest novels are considered to be Lord Jim (1900), Nostromo (1904), The Secret Agent (1907), and Under Western Eyes (1911), the last being three novels of political intrigue and romance
Nostromo (1904) is a story of revolution, politics, and financial manipulation in a South American republic. It centers, for all its close-packed incidents, upon one idea — the corruption of the characters by the ambitions that they set before themselves, ambitions concerned with silver, which forms the republic's wealth and which is the central symbol around which the novel is organized. The ambitions range from simple greed to idealistic desires for reform and justice. All lead to moral disaster, and the nobler the ambition the greater its possessor's self-disgust as he realizes his plight.
Heart of Darkness,(one of the Two Other Stories in Youth and Two Other Stories, the third one being The End of the Tether) which follows closely the actual For Conrad's Congo journey, tells of the narrator's fascination by a mysterious white man, Kurtz, who, by his eloquence and hypnotic personality, dominates the brutal tribesmen around him. Full of contempt for the greedy traders who exploit the natives, the narrator cannot deny the power of this figure of evil who calls forth from him something approaching reluctant loyalty.
The Secret Agent (1907) is a sustained essay in the ironic and one of Conrad's finest works. It deals with the equivocal world of anarchists, police, politicians, and agents provocateurs in London.
Victory describes the unsuccessful attempts of a detached, nihilistic observer of life to protect himself and his hapless female companion from the murderous machinations of a trio of rogues on an isolated island.
Conrad died on 03 August 1924.
CONRAD ONLINE: [Conrad links]
| 1893 Pope Leo XIII appoints Archbishop Francesco Satolli
as the Vatican's first Apostolic Delegate to the United States.
1873 "Celluloid" registered as a trademark. It was invented by John Wesley Hyatt three or four years earlier.
1868 South Carolina constitutional convention, meets with a black majority
1868 North Carolina constitutional convention meets in Raleigh
1864 General War is Hell Sherman begins his march to the South
1864 Battle of Cosby Creek TN
1863 Battle between gunboats at Bayou Teched LA
1862 Début, à une séance de la Société royale géographique de Londres, du récit de Cinq semaines en ballon de Jules Verne.
1861 Fort Pikens FL falls into state hands
1858 French Emperor Napoleon III escapes attempt on his life by Felice Orsini, an Italian anarchist who was later executed
1847 Conspiracy in New Mexico against US
1814 King of Denmark cedes Norway to King of Sweden by treaty of Kiel.
1799 King of Naples flees before the advancing French armies.
1799 Eli Whitney receives government contract for 10'000 muskets
1794 Dr Jessee Bennet of Edom VA, performs first successful Cesarean section operation (on his wife)
1784 Revolutionary War ends, Congress ratifies the Treaty of Paris (Maryland celebrates it as Ratification Day)
1783 Congress ratifies peace treaty between US and England
1739 England and Spain signs 2nd Convention of Pardo
1724 Spanish King Philip V abdicates throne
1699 Massachusetts holds day of fasting to atone for the Salem witch trials of 1692.
1690 Johann Christoph Denner, of Nürnberg, improves the target="_blank">chalumeau, which he will later develop into the clarinet
1659 During the Regency of D. Luisa de Gusmão, Portuguese D. Sancho Manuel, Count of Vila Flor and D, António de Meneses, Count of Cantanhede defeat the Spanish army in the battle of Linhas de Elvas.
|1639 Rodger Ludlow publishes Fundamental
Orders of Connecticut (first Connecticut constitution)
For as much as it hath pleased Almighty God by the wise disposition of his divine providence so to order and dispose of things that we the Inhabitants and Residents of Windsor, Hartford and Wethersfield are now cohabiting and dwelling in and upon the River of Connectecotte and the lands thereunto adjoining; and well knowing where a people are gathered together the word of God requires that to maintain the peace and union of such a people there should be an orderly and decent Government established according to God, to order and dispose of the affairs of the people at all seasons as occasion shall require; do therefore associate and conjoin ourselves to be as one Public State or Commonwealth; and do for ourselves and our successors and such as shall be adjoined to us at any time hereafter, enter into Combination and Confederation together, to maintain and preserve the liberty and purity of the Gospel of our Lord Jesus which we now profess, as also, the discipline of the Churches, which according to the truth of the said Gospel is now practiced amongst us; as also in our civil affairs to be guided and governed accordinbg to such Laws, Rules, Orders and Decrees as shall be made, ordered, and decreed as followeth:
The aforesaid deputies shall be chosen in manner following: every person that is present and qualified as before expressed, shall bring the names of such, written in several papers, as they desire to have chosen for that employment, and these three or four, more or less, being the number agreed on to be chosen for that time, that have the greatest number of papers written for them shall be deputies for that Court; whose names shall be endorsed on the back side of the warrant and returned into the Court, with the Constable or Constables' hand unto the same.
In which Court the Governor or Moderator shall have power to order the Court, to give liberty of speech, and silence unseasonable and disorderly speakings, to put all things to vote, and in case the vote be equal to have the casting voice. But none of these Courts shall be adjourned or dissolved without the consent of the major part of the Court.
Church authorities burn Hebrew books in Rome
1529 Spanish reformer Juan de Valdes, 29, published his Dialogue on Christian Doctrine, which paved the way in Spain for Protestant ideas. But his treatise was condemned by the Spanish Inquisition, and Valdes was forced to flee Spain, never to return.
1526 Charles V [< click on left icon for portrait] and François I [click on right icon for portrait >] sign Treaty of Madrid; François I forced to give up claims in Burgundy, Italy and Flanders.
which occurred on a January 14:
2003 Detective Constable Stephen Oake, 40, stabbed with a kitchen knife by a suspect during a search of a residence in Manchester, England. Another four policemen (all unarmed) are injured.
2002 Raed al-Karmi, 28, an al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades leader in Tulkarem, West Bank, who had survived an Israeli missile attack on his car in September 2001 [< 07 Sep 2001 photo]. Karmi received a phone call telling him to go outside. He was killed when a bomb planted on a cemetery wall near his house explodes as he walks past. Karmi's body is torn by shrapnel and one leg is ripped off.
1991 Sallah Kharaf [Abu Iyad], co-founder (Al-Fatah), assassinated
1988 Georgi M Malenkov, 86, PM of USSR (1953-55)
1978 Kurt Gödel, mathematician.
1977 Anthony Eden, 79, British premier (1955-57)
1977 Abdul Razak bin Hussain, 53, premier of Malaysia (1970-77)
1977 Anaïs Nin, 73, Cuban/American writer (Delta of Venus)
1972 Frederik IX [Christiaan FFMKW], 72, king of Denmark (1947-72)
1970 Feller, mathematician.
1969 25 crew members of US aircraft carrier Enterprise, from explosion, during maneuvers
1949: 141 die in Black / Indian race rebellion in Durban, South Africa.
1949 Joaquín Turina, 66, Spanish pianist/conductor/composer (Rima)
1944 Mohammed Emin Yurdakul, 74, Turkish poet.
1944 German M/S Wittekind, bombed and sunk by British aircraft while sailing from Narvik to Germany. The ship had been built in 1906 for the Norwegian company Wilh. Wilhelmsen (of Tønsberg) as its 2nd M/S Tricolor and sold in 1925 to Germany, where it was renamed.
Their 2nd Tricolor (built 1906) had been sold to Germany in 1925 and renamed Wittekind, bombed and sunk by British aircraft on Jan. 14-1944 on a voyage Narvik-Germany.
Their 2nd Tricolor (built 1906) had been sold to Germany in 1925 and renamed Wittekind, bombed and sunk by British aircraft on Jan. 14-1944 on a voyage Narvik-Germany.
1931 William Ernst Johnson, British mathematician.
1905 Abbe, mathematician.
1902 Cato Maximilian Guldberg , 65, Norwegian mathematician and chemist.
1901 Victor Balaguer, 76, Catalan historian/politician/author
1901 Charles Hermite, 78, French mathematician (e is transcendent)
1871 Eduardo Zamachois y Zabala, Spanish artist born in 1842.
1867 Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, in Montauban, France, neoclassical painter, specialized in portraits and orientalism, born on 29 August 1780. MORE ON INGRES AT ART 4 JANUARY LINKS Molière Self~Portrait Self~Portrait The Artist and his Wife Bonaparte as First Consul Napoléon on the Imperial Throne The Apotheosis of Homer _ detail: Poussin and Corneille _ detail: Racine, Molière, Boileau Countess D'Haussonville _ detail: head Molière Jeanne d'Arc au Sacre de Charles VII dans la Cathédrale de Reims Raphael and the Fornarina Paganini Le Bain Turc _ détail The Apotheosis of Homer Mme. Moitessier M. Bertin Le Bain Turc The Ambassadors of Agamemnon in the Tent of Achilles Napoléon on the Imperial Throne Self~Portrait Mademoiselle Rivière Mme Duvauçay Joseph~Antoine Moltedo Charles-Joseph-Laurent Cordier Count Nikolay Gouriev La Grande Odalisque Apotheosis of Homer Martyrdom of St. Symphorien Portrait of Louis-François Bertin Madame Ingres Baroness James de Rothschild Madame Gonse Madame Moitessier Sitting
1846 Jan Hendrik Verkeyen, Dutch artist born on 22 December 1778.
1814 Bossut, mathematician.
1813 William Marlow, British painter born in 1740. LINKS
1766 Frederik V, 42, king of Denmark/Norway (1746-66)
1753 Berkeley, mathematician.
1742 Edmund Halley, 86, English mathematician, genius eclipsed by Newton, astronomer who observed the comet that now bears his name.
1687 Nicolaus Mercator, mathematician.
1679 Billy, mathematician.
1648 Casparus Barleaus, 63, Flemish theologian/poet (Muiderkring)
1595 Ferdinand archduke of Austria / mayor of Bohemia.
1494 Domenico Currado di Tommaso Bigordi Ghirlandaio, Italian painter born in 1449. MORE ON GHIRLANDAIO AT ART 4 JANUARY LINKS Apse fresco at Sant'Andrea Saint Barbara Saint Jerome Saint Anthony. Madonna of Mercy Lamentation over the Dead Christ Madonna and Child with Saint Sebastian and Saint Julian Baptism of Christ Announcement of Death to Saint Fina _ detail Obsequies of Saint Fina _ detail Saint Jerome in his Study. _ Detail Calling of the First Apostles _ detail at left (women) on the left side of the fresco, including a woman in blue seen from behind, anticipates the female figures Ghirlandaio paints in later works. _ Detail at right portraits of important Florentines in Rome: Giovanni, Lorenzo, and Cecco Tornabuoni, Giovanni Antonio Vespucci, Francesco Soderini, John Argyropulus. Decoration of the Sala del Gigli (1484) _ detail 1 on the right Decius, Scipio, and Cicero. _ Detail 2 on the left Brutus, Mucius Scaevola, and Camillus. Last Supper (1476) Last Supper (1480, 400x880cm) _ detail 1 at left. _ Detail 2 at right. _ Detail 3 angry reaction of Saint Peter and another apostle. _ Detail 4 sad reaction of other apostles Last Supper (1486, 400x800cm) _ detail 1 (An apostle who has already drunk his wine) _ detail 2 (Apostles reacting). Nera Corsi Sassetti Francesco Sassetti Sibyl Meeting of Augustus and the Sibyl David Madonna and Child Enthroned with Saints (1479, 170x160cm) Madonna and Child Enthroned with Saints (1483, 191x200cm) Madonna and Child Enthroned between Angels and Saints (1486) Coronation of the Virgin (another) Coronation of the Virgin Adoration of the Magi Visitation Madonna in Glory with Saints Christ in Heaven with Four Saints and a Donor Saint Catherine of Siena and Saint Lawrence Giovanna Tornabuoni an Old Man with a Child Annunciation Saint Stephen _ detail Adoration of the Magi at the Spedale degli Innocenti (1488, 285x240cm) _ detail1 _ (includes details 2 and 3) _ detail 2 _ (Personages including self-portrait of the artist and portrait of Francesco di Giovanni Tesori, prior of the Spedale degli Innocenti). _ detail 3 _ (The slaughter, and background reminiscent of Rome). _ detail 4 _ (Three men in oriental costumes) _ detail 5 _ (Background landscape) _ detail 6 _ (Figures and ships in landscape) _ detail 7 _ (Four angels float above) Expulsion of Joachim from the Temple
1301 Andreas III Arpad, 50, king of Hungary (1290-1301)
1237 Saint Sava Nemanja , 62, monk, founder, and first archbishop of the independent Serbian Orthodox Church. His policy of recognizing the jurisdiction of the patriarch of Constantinople (now Istanbul) ensured the adherence of Serbian Christianity to Eastern Orthodoxy. Sava's brother was crowned in 1217 as Stefan Prvovencani (the "First-Crowned"), king of the Serbian nation.
0973 Ekkehard I monk of St Gallen (Vita Waltharii manu fortis) 1163 Ladislaus I Arpad king of Hungary (1162-63)
occurred on a January 14:
1989 Sextuplets Paris France, (to a 29-year-old woman)
1940 Julian Bond, US civil rights activist.
1926 Thomas Tryon Hartford CT, actor/novelist (I Married a Monster from Outer Space, Cardinal, All That Glitters, The Other)
1916 John Oliver Killens novelist
1913 Tillie Olsen American writer (Tell Me a Riddle)
1912 Rudolf Hagelstange German author/poet (Spielball der Götter)
1907 Derek Richter British neuro chemist (Aspects of learning & memory)
1902 Alfred Tarski, Warsaw, mathematician / logician
1899 Carlos Peña Romulo, Philippine general, diplomat, and journalist known for his activities on behalf of the Allies during World War II and his later work with the United Nations. Romulo's autobiography I Walked With Heroes was published in 1961. Romulo died on 15 December 1985.
1892 Martin Niemöller clergyman (German Protestant); imprisoned by Hitler
1886 Hugh Lofting, English US writer and illustrator (Dr Dolittle) He died on 26 September 1947. LOFTING ONLINE: The Story of Doctor Dolittle (slightly expurgated 1960s edition), The Voyages of Doctor Dolittle
1882 Hendrik W van Loon Netherlands, commentator/writer (Story of America) ONLINE: The Story of Mankind, The Story of Mankind (another site)
1878 Augustus Edwin John, British painter who died in 1961. LINKS Robin C. Casper C. Pyramus
1878 Victor A D Ségalen [Max Anély], French writer
1875 Albert Schweitzer, Alsatian-German doctor, humanitarian, organist (Peace Nobel 1952). He died on 04 September 1965.
1874 Thornton Waldo Burgess author (Peter Rabbit) ONLINE: The Adventures of Paddy the Beaver, The Adventures of Reddy Fox, The Burgess Animal Book for Children, Old Mother West Wind
1868 Catharina A M de Savornin Lohman Dutch author (Belief)
1866 Art Young, US cartoonist who died on 29 December 1943.
1861 Wilhelm von Polenz German writer (Der Pfarrer von Breitendorf)
1861 Mehmed VI last sultan of Ottoman Empire (1918-22)
1860 Domenico Pennachini, Italian artist who died in 1910.
1859 Paolo Sala, Italian artist who died on 20 December 1929. Relative? of George Augustus Henry Sala [1828-1896]?
1852 Johannes Karel Christiaan Klinkenberg, Dutch artist who died in 1924.
1850 Pierre Loti [Julien Viaud], French naval officer / writer LOTI ONLINE: Pêcheur d'Islande, Le roman d'un enfant, Mon frère Yves. _ (in English translation): An Iceland Fisherman
1845 Henry C K Petty-Fitzmaurice 5th marquess of Landsdowne / Governor-General Canada.
1841 Berthe Marie-Pauline Morisot, Mme. Eugène Manet, French Impressionist painter who died on 02 March 1895. her portrait by brother-in-law Manet MORE ON MORISOT AT ART 4 JANUARY LINKS Au Bois de Boulogne Paris vu du Trocadéro Cache-cache Nice Little Girl (Nice: the city) La lecture (Jeanne Bonnet) (1888).
1833 Ferdinand Meyer-Wismar, German artist who died on 26 March 1917.
1818 Zacharias Topelius Finnish historical novelist (Surgeon's Stories)
1798 Johan R Thorbecke Premier of Netherlands (Liberal-1849-72)
1791 Calvin Phillips became shortest known adult male (67cm; 2'2")
1741 Benedict Arnold, US General turned traitor (Revolutionary War). He died in England on 14 June 1801.
1700 Picander [Christian F Henrici], German writer (Der Säuffer)
1600 Pieter van Avont, Flemish artist who died in 1652.
1592 Sjihab al-Din Sultan Choerram Sjah Djahan leader of India.
1507 Luca Longhi (or Lunghi) le Raphäel de Ravenne, Italian artist who died on 12 August 1580.